An endangered species is a species which has been categorized as very likely to become extinct in the near future. Endangered (EN), as categorized by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List, is the second most severe conservation status for wild populations in the IUCN’s schema after Critically Endangered (CR). In 2012, the IUCN Red List featured 3,079 animal and 2,655 plant species as endangered (EN) worldwide. The figures for 1998 were 1,102 and 1,197 respectively. Many nations have laws that protect conservation-reliant species: for example, forbidding hunting, restricting land development or creating protected areas. Population numbers, trends and species’ conservation status can be found at the lists of organisms by population.
Miles Prower,[d] better known by his nickname Tails,[e] is a two-tailed fox who is Sonic’s best friend and sidekick. His name is a pun on “miles per hour”. He is able to use his two tails to propel himself into the air like a helicopter for a limited time. Yasushi Yamaguchi, originally the main artist and zone designer for Sega’s Sonic Team, designed Tails for an internal competition for a sidekick to Sonic. His first appearance was in Sonic 2 for the Game Gear, where he was kidnapped by Doctor Robotnik for a “hefty” ransom, and was first made playable in the Genesis version of Sonic the Hedgehog 2. Tails has appeared in almost every Sonic game since his first appearance. Tails also starred in two solo spinoff games for the Sega Game Gear in 1995 – Tails’ Skypatrol, and Tails Adventures. Frequently portrayed as a sweet-natured and humble fox, Tails used to be picked on because of his twin tails, before he met Sonic. Tails has a very high IQ and excellent mechanical ability.
In the mid-19th century, inventions such as Joseph Plateau’s phenakistoscope and the later zoetrope demonstrated that a carefully designed sequence of drawings, showing phases of the changing appearance of objects in motion, would appear to show the objects actually moving if they were displayed one after the other at a sufficiently rapid rate. Each sequence was limited to a small number of drawings, so it could only show endlessly repeating cyclical motions. By the late 1880s, the last major device of this type, the praxinoscope, had been elaborated into the Theatre Optique that employed a long coiled band containing hundreds of images painted on glass and used the elements of a magic lantern to project them onto a screen.